Seismic refraction involves measuring the travel time of the component of seismic energy which travels down to the top of rock (or other distinct density contrast), is refracted along the top of rock, and returns to the surface as a head wave along a wave front similar to the bow wake of a ship (see Seismic Refraction Geometry).
The shock waves which return from the top of rock are refracted waves, and for geophones at a distance from the shot point, always represent the first arrival of seismic energy.
Seismic refraction is generally applicable only where the seismic velocities of layers increase with depth. Therefore, where higher velocity (e.g. clay) layers may overlie lower velocity (e.g. sand or gravel) layers, seismic refraction may yield incorrect results. In addition, since seismic refraction requires geophone arrays with lengths of approximately 4 to 5 times the depth to the density contrast of interest (e.g. the top of bedrock), seismic refraction is commonly limited (as a matter of practicality) to mapping layers only where they occur at depths less than 35 meter.
Greater depths are possible, but the required array lengths may exceed site dimensions, and the shot energy required to transmit seismic arrivals for the required distances may necessitate the use of very large explosive charges. In addition, the lateral resolution of seismic refraction data degrades with increasing array length since the path that a seismic first arrival travels may migrate laterally (i.e. in three dimensions) off of the trace of the desired (two dimensional) seismic profile.
Recent advances in inversion of seismic refraction data have made it possible to image relatively small, non-stratigraphic targets such as foundation elements, and to perform refraction profiling in the presence of localized low velocity zones such as incipient sinkholes.
... More than 54.600 m of standard seismic refraction surveys carried out and processed between 2004 and 2006 ...
... In 2006 GEC - Geophysical Exploration & Consulting S.A. replaced the standard refraction seismic surveys by state-of the-art Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) techniques ...